EFY Times  
Sunday, August 30, 2015

 
GO
 
 
Has The 'God Particle' Been Found By CERN Scientists?
 
Home >> Electronics >> Trends
 
Has The 'God Particle' Been Found By CERN Scientists?  
 
On July 4th, why were scientists in Geneva—and the world over—cheering like fans at a football match?   
Rate this news:  (0 Votes)
Saturday, July 21, 2012 Thousands of scientists, decades of research, billions of dollars—if all of this culminates in a super-duper discovery, and you get a chance to be in the same room as the man who began the quest half a century ago, what would you do but forget yourself and cheer as if in a football match or a rock concert. Well, we are talking about an auditorium packed with some of the world’s best researchers—at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The scene was replicated in almost all of the planet’s best research institutions… as CERN quickly passed on news of having discovered what looks like the so-far elusive Higgs-boson, the magic particle that gives mass to all things bright and beautiful, all creatures great and small. Scientists cheered. Peter Higgs shed a happy tear. The world watched.

CERN, Higgs Boson, ICHEP201, Atlas, CMS




The Higgs-boson

When asked questions like why there is life on Earth, why is there so much diversity, why do creatures come in so many sizes and shapes, some would say, “God,” while others would say, “The God Particle.” God Particle was the nickname given to the Higgs-boson by Nobel prize winner Leon Lederman in one of his writings (he is known to have admitted later than he actually wanted to call it the god-damned particle, as it was sending so many physicists on a sleepless chase).

The Higgs-boson is the missing link in the Standard Model that is one of the basic underlying principles of modern particle physics. Physicists believe that there are only four forces in nature – electromagnetic, strong, weak and gravitational. The Standard Model is a unified theory that explains the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in nature; the gravitational field being too weak in comparison. In the 1960s, in a paper describing the weak and electromagnetic field interactions, Peter Higgs mentioned that there ought to be a heavy particle which breaks up to give the other paticles their mass. It is this mass that then combines with gravity to give objects what we call as weight. Other physicists called it the Higgs particle to acknowledge Peter Higgs’ contribution.

The Higgs is a particle with zero spin, making it a boson. Bosons are particles that are governed by the Bose-Einstein Statistics first discovered by Indian physicist Satyendranath Bose. Combined, the particle became the Higgs-boson, which later acquired the notorious God Particle nomer.

While the theory about the existence of a heavy particle seemed perfectly logical, it sent physicists on a hunt that lasted around fifty years!

July’s discovery

In the course of the five decades since the Higgs-boson was proposed, particle physicists across the world have devised several high-energy proton collision experiments in which they expected to see this particle. But, with little success. Most of these experiments closed down in the past decade.

CERN too has been doing its share of experiments. Its $10-billion Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on the Swiss-French border, has been creating high-energy collisions of protons—for years together—to investigate dark matter, anti-matter and the creation of the universe through the Big Bang. Of the many teams working with the LHC, two claimed in July to have noted a new subatomic particle, which is a boson for sure, supposedly a Higgs-boson, and hopefully the Higgs-boson defined in the Standard Model.

The two teams that observed the particle were: the 2100-scientist CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) headed by Joe Incandela, and the 3000-scientist ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) headed by Fabiola Gianotti. Both have strong evidence concerning the new particle. The particle has a mass 125 giga-electron-volts, and is one of the heaviest bosons identified till date.

What does this mean?

In short, it means more research. “We have now found the missing cornerstone of particle physics,” Rolf Heuer, director of the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN), told scientists on July 4th, 2012. He worded their success very carefully: “As a layman, I think we did it,” he said. “We’ve a discovery. We’ve observed a new particle that is consistent with a Higgs-boson.” What they have discovered is a Higgs-boson. And, they are quite sure about this, claiming five-sigma statistical significance, a 1 in 3.5 million chance of error.

The team now has to delve further into the properties of the new particle by studying how it transforms, decays, and so on, to confirm whether it is the Higgs-boson that fits perfectly into the Standard Model. One physicist has already raised doubts concerning a deviation of the new particle’s decay path from what is expected of the Higgs-boson.

If the particle is the highly sought after Higgs-boson, it would help solve many puzzles about the formation of this Universe and biodiversity. According to a wonderful explanation by the BBC, the matter we see in the world today is just 4 per cent of the Universe. The remaining is composed of dark and anti-matter. If the Higgs-boson were found, it would help unravel this 96 per cent of the Universe that has eluded scientists all along. But, while a majority of the world’s physicists cried and hugged and cheered, a few shrugged their shoulders thinking it to be no big deal. According to them, there are other questions beyond what is explained by the Standard Model, and they believe in alternative theories (e.g., Technicolor) that claim the Standard Model to be insufficient or even wrong.

Well, let us wait and see what transpires! The LHC will continue to run its experiments and try to revalidate the results before it shuts down for maintenance at the end of this year. “The LHC has the highest beam energy in the world now. The experiment was designed to yield quick results. With its high luminosity, it quickly narrowed down the energy-ranges. I’m sure that by the end of the year, we will have a definite word on the Higgs-boson’s properties,” said Dr. Rahul Sinha, a participant of the Belle Collaboration in Japan.

The LHC

o Situated on the Swiss-French border, 100 metres below the ground, in a 27 kilometre long tunnel

o It is a particle-accelerator that helps study the smallest known particles

o Hopes to throw more light on how the Universe was formed, and on the Standard Model that helps explain the forces of nature

o Two beams of subatomic particles called ‘hadrons’ – either protons or lead ions – travel in opposite directions inside the circular accelerator

o The particles gain energy with every lap

o The goal is to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding the two beams head-on at very high energy

o Physicists around the world then analyse the particles created in the collisions using various special equipment.


Indian connections

Here are some of the Indian contributions to this new discovery…

o The Higgs-boson is governed by the Bose-Einstein Statistics first discovered by Indian physicist Satyendranath Bose

o Indian physicists have also played a key role in validating, or furthering, the Standard Model theory since the 1960s

o Archana Sharma, the only permanent Indian staff at the CERN facility has contributed at various levels to the discovery of the new particle. She worked on designing and prototyping the present generation of muon-detectors currently operational. These are crucial for the gold-plated discovery channel for the Higgs-boson. Her main job is to develop radiation hard detectors for CMS for sustained operation at LHC upgrades in this decade and the next

o Prof. Prafulla Kumar Behera worked with CERN before resigning in March 2012 to work on the India-based Neutrino Oberservatory (INO) in Theni, Tamilnadu. In a talk at IIT-Madras this July, he recollected various experiences including how his team once redesigned a detector at ATLAS, due to a technical glitch, within a short span of three months

o Research institutes in Kolkata, Allahabad, Mumbai and Bhubaneswar were involved in the experiment at CERN

o The INO hopes to go beyond the Standard Model, to try and overcome its limitations and truly explain the formation of this Universe.

Pic courtesy: CERN

- Janani Gopalakrishnan Vikram



Print Email Post Comment 
(Total Views: 1803)
 
Share

 
 
Electronics News
   
Noble Systems Receives 2015 CUSTOMER Contact Center Technology Award
Beijing Tongfang Microelectronics Company Ltd. Becomes GlobalPlatform Member
Verical.com Doubles Stock As Site Redesign Progresses
Toshiba Handed Over Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage System For Frequency Regulation Project In Sardinia, Italy
Schneider Electric India Launches Its Full Suite Of Smart Homes Solutions
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
Most popular
 

Daily

Weekly

Google Challenged By An Indian-Origin Teenager
Now Water Your Lawn Using Raspberry Pi
Top Five File Managers For Linux
Top 4 Command Line Based Email Clients
Chinese Hackers To Attack India
Would You Design A Hydrogen Fuel Cell Into Your Device?
Download Mozilla's Open Source Furniture To Furnish Your Office At Low Cost
Speech System Used By Stephen Hawking Is Now Open To All
Scientific Linux 6.7 Now Available For Download
IBM Adds Java To Bluemix For Open Source Agility
Share Your Contact With Just A Tap Using Knock Knock
Google-Twitter Deal Rolls Out On Desktop
Top 5 Free Ebooks, Movies And Audio Books For Your iPad And Kindle!
Google Photos Rolls Out New Feature To Bring Back Past Memories
Microsoft Launches Beta Cortana App For Android
Latest Microcontrollers Released In The Last 12 Months
 
   

Overall

Features
Top Four Markup Languages
Formatting and publishing documentation is a crucial part of programmer's life. Markup languages simplify this task....
Top Five File Managers For Linux
File management programs streamline and simplify the process on your computer....
Now Water Your Lawn Using Raspberry Pi
An open source enthusiast, Robert Booth has developed a prototype of lawn watering system....
Download Mozilla's Open Source Furniture To Furnish Your Office At Low Cost
Mozilla and Nosigner are enabling inexpensive office furniture with open source schematic....
Top 5 Free Ebooks, Movies And Audio Books For Your iPad And Kindle!
Here is a list of best free books, movies and audio books from OpenCulture!...
Chinese Hackers To Attack India
A sophisticated cyber espionage group from China is working day and night to steal sensitive diplomatic information....
Speech System Used By Stephen Hawking Is Now Open To All
Intel has released the open source code of the speech system it developed for Stephen Hawking....
Top 4 Command Line Based Email Clients
Once you master one of these clients, you may not want to go back to GUI based clients....
Five Big Data Projects To Watch Out For!
Here are five important Open Source Big Data projects that you may not know about....
Top Five Community Tools
Top-notch tools can help in growth and maintenance of communities that make real difference....
Top Five Open Source E-Commerce Platforms
Establishing online presence of your business is very simple with these platforms....
Five Things You Need To Know About BLE
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Technology is set to improve the lifestyle of consumers....
LibreOffice 5.0 Brings Major Performance Changes
LibreOffice 5.0 proves to be the best free alternative to Microsoft Office. ...
Five Must-Have Apps For Chromebook
You can also install and use these apps on Chrome browser on any OS....
Top Five Linux Based Mobile Operating Systems
Open source operating systems are ruling the computing world. ...
 
  View All
Dialogue
 
Meet Pranjal Saxena, India's 21 Year Old Electronics Wizard
Milan Ondhia of EFYTimes was in a forthright conversation with the 21 year old Pranjal Saxena from New Delhi; an aspirant at the WorldSkills meet, in ...
“We Offer Managed Document Solutions To CIO And IT Decision Makers”: Canon
Manufacturing within the country will surely reduce the cost of our devices, but manufacturing can begin only if there is the desired eco-system and w...
“One Day The End User Can Open Up A Used Battery, And Use What’s Inside As Barbecue Sauce”
Of course that is not something currently possible, but what B&B Batteries does have are some secret recipes for their very specialised battery design...
We Wish To Procure All The LED Components Within India: Avni Energy
G. Gururaja, director, Avni Energy Solutions Pvt Ltd, shares his views about the expanding LED industry in the Indian market and the company's plans i...
We Have Registered 50 Per Cent Growth In The Last Two Years: Arihant Lighting
Apart from LEDs, Arihant is associated with the promotion of renewable energy in India and therefore, manufactures various energy saving products....
   
  View All
Videos
 
First Look: LG Optimus G
The phone sports a high-end display and comes powered by a powerful processor. ...
Create QR-Codes For Free
TEC-IT releases the freeware QR-Code Studio to provide a quick and convenient way of QR code creation for every application scenario....
DoT Secretary Shares Plans For Growth Of Telecom Sector
M.F. Farooqui has recently taken charge as secretary, Department of Telecom....
Hands-On: Sony Xperia Z
Xperia Z is Sony's first entrant model in the big-screen smartphone category. ...
Hands On: Videocon A30 Smartphone
Videocon, the consumer electronics company which is known for its refrigerators, washing machine and air-conditioner has unveiled its Android-based sm...
   
View All
   
 
IFA 2014
 
IFA 2014: LG Launches 34-Inches Curved Monitor
The company is yet to confirm price and availability of the device....
IFA 2014: Intel Launches First Core M Range Of Processors
This range of processors is tailor-made for 2-in-1 devices which include a tablet and a laptop....
MWC 2014: Tablet Lets People Feel Textures On Its Screen
Now feel what you see on your tablet, by way of ultrasonic waves....
MWC 2014: 4K Android Tablet Games To Kill Consoles, iPad
Tablet makers like Samsung want to beat the iPad by making 4K tabs. ...
MWC 2014: This Vodafone Backpack Helps Get Network In Disaster Situations
Two engineers of Vodafone New Zealand displayed the "mini" mobile network by Vodafone substructure in a backpack. ...
MWC 2014: Wilocity Chipset To Bring 'Lightening' Speed To Mobile Phones
Wilocity has developed a WiGig chipset for mobile phones that will bring lightning-fast wireless capability ...
MWC 2014: Samsung Introduces Octacore, Hexacore Chipsets
The Korean giant, Samsung unveiled two new octacore and hexacore chipsets at MWC 2014, in Barcelona. The company previously used Exynos 5 Octa 5410 ch...
   
View All
   
 
Events
 
19th Consumer Electronic Imaging Fair To Be Held On ...

View All
   
   
 
 

home archives contact us advertise with us
           
Magazines Portals Directories Events News Verticals Educational Institute  
Electronics for You
Open Source for You
Electronics Bazaar
electronicsforu.com
efytimes.com
opensourceforu.com
electronicsb2b.com
Electronics Annual Guide
EFY EXPO INDIA
EFY EXPO WEST
ELECTRONICS ROCKS
EFY Awards
OSIDAYS Expo
Electronics
Infotech
Linux & Open Source
Consumer Electronics
Science & Technology
BPO
EFY Techcenter

Educational Kits
Kitsnspares.com  
 
 
© Copyright 2015 EFY Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without written permission is prohibited.
Usage of the content from the web site is subject to Terms and Conditions