EFY Times  
Wednesday, July 30, 2014

 
GO
 
 
Has The 'God Particle' Been Found By CERN Scientists?
 
Home >> Electronics >> Trends
 
Has The 'God Particle' Been Found By CERN Scientists?  
 
On July 4th, why were scientists in Geneva—and the world over—cheering like fans at a football match?   
Rate this news:  (0 Votes)
Saturday, July 21, 2012 Thousands of scientists, decades of research, billions of dollars—if all of this culminates in a super-duper discovery, and you get a chance to be in the same room as the man who began the quest half a century ago, what would you do but forget yourself and cheer as if in a football match or a rock concert. Well, we are talking about an auditorium packed with some of the world’s best researchers—at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The scene was replicated in almost all of the planet’s best research institutions… as CERN quickly passed on news of having discovered what looks like the so-far elusive Higgs-boson, the magic particle that gives mass to all things bright and beautiful, all creatures great and small. Scientists cheered. Peter Higgs shed a happy tear. The world watched.

CERN, Higgs Boson, ICHEP201, Atlas, CMS




The Higgs-boson

When asked questions like why there is life on Earth, why is there so much diversity, why do creatures come in so many sizes and shapes, some would say, “God,” while others would say, “The God Particle.” God Particle was the nickname given to the Higgs-boson by Nobel prize winner Leon Lederman in one of his writings (he is known to have admitted later than he actually wanted to call it the god-damned particle, as it was sending so many physicists on a sleepless chase).

The Higgs-boson is the missing link in the Standard Model that is one of the basic underlying principles of modern particle physics. Physicists believe that there are only four forces in nature – electromagnetic, strong, weak and gravitational. The Standard Model is a unified theory that explains the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in nature; the gravitational field being too weak in comparison. In the 1960s, in a paper describing the weak and electromagnetic field interactions, Peter Higgs mentioned that there ought to be a heavy particle which breaks up to give the other paticles their mass. It is this mass that then combines with gravity to give objects what we call as weight. Other physicists called it the Higgs particle to acknowledge Peter Higgs’ contribution.

The Higgs is a particle with zero spin, making it a boson. Bosons are particles that are governed by the Bose-Einstein Statistics first discovered by Indian physicist Satyendranath Bose. Combined, the particle became the Higgs-boson, which later acquired the notorious God Particle nomer.

While the theory about the existence of a heavy particle seemed perfectly logical, it sent physicists on a hunt that lasted around fifty years!

July’s discovery

In the course of the five decades since the Higgs-boson was proposed, particle physicists across the world have devised several high-energy proton collision experiments in which they expected to see this particle. But, with little success. Most of these experiments closed down in the past decade.

CERN too has been doing its share of experiments. Its $10-billion Large Hadron Collider (LHC) on the Swiss-French border, has been creating high-energy collisions of protons—for years together—to investigate dark matter, anti-matter and the creation of the universe through the Big Bang. Of the many teams working with the LHC, two claimed in July to have noted a new subatomic particle, which is a boson for sure, supposedly a Higgs-boson, and hopefully the Higgs-boson defined in the Standard Model.

The two teams that observed the particle were: the 2100-scientist CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) headed by Joe Incandela, and the 3000-scientist ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) headed by Fabiola Gianotti. Both have strong evidence concerning the new particle. The particle has a mass 125 giga-electron-volts, and is one of the heaviest bosons identified till date.

What does this mean?

In short, it means more research. “We have now found the missing cornerstone of particle physics,” Rolf Heuer, director of the European Centre for Nuclear Research (CERN), told scientists on July 4th, 2012. He worded their success very carefully: “As a layman, I think we did it,” he said. “We’ve a discovery. We’ve observed a new particle that is consistent with a Higgs-boson.” What they have discovered is a Higgs-boson. And, they are quite sure about this, claiming five-sigma statistical significance, a 1 in 3.5 million chance of error.

The team now has to delve further into the properties of the new particle by studying how it transforms, decays, and so on, to confirm whether it is the Higgs-boson that fits perfectly into the Standard Model. One physicist has already raised doubts concerning a deviation of the new particle’s decay path from what is expected of the Higgs-boson.

If the particle is the highly sought after Higgs-boson, it would help solve many puzzles about the formation of this Universe and biodiversity. According to a wonderful explanation by the BBC, the matter we see in the world today is just 4 per cent of the Universe. The remaining is composed of dark and anti-matter. If the Higgs-boson were found, it would help unravel this 96 per cent of the Universe that has eluded scientists all along. But, while a majority of the world’s physicists cried and hugged and cheered, a few shrugged their shoulders thinking it to be no big deal. According to them, there are other questions beyond what is explained by the Standard Model, and they believe in alternative theories (e.g., Technicolor) that claim the Standard Model to be insufficient or even wrong.

Well, let us wait and see what transpires! The LHC will continue to run its experiments and try to revalidate the results before it shuts down for maintenance at the end of this year. “The LHC has the highest beam energy in the world now. The experiment was designed to yield quick results. With its high luminosity, it quickly narrowed down the energy-ranges. I’m sure that by the end of the year, we will have a definite word on the Higgs-boson’s properties,” said Dr. Rahul Sinha, a participant of the Belle Collaboration in Japan.

The LHC

o Situated on the Swiss-French border, 100 metres below the ground, in a 27 kilometre long tunnel

o It is a particle-accelerator that helps study the smallest known particles

o Hopes to throw more light on how the Universe was formed, and on the Standard Model that helps explain the forces of nature

o Two beams of subatomic particles called ‘hadrons’ – either protons or lead ions – travel in opposite directions inside the circular accelerator

o The particles gain energy with every lap

o The goal is to recreate the conditions just after the Big Bang, by colliding the two beams head-on at very high energy

o Physicists around the world then analyse the particles created in the collisions using various special equipment.


Indian connections

Here are some of the Indian contributions to this new discovery…

o The Higgs-boson is governed by the Bose-Einstein Statistics first discovered by Indian physicist Satyendranath Bose

o Indian physicists have also played a key role in validating, or furthering, the Standard Model theory since the 1960s

o Archana Sharma, the only permanent Indian staff at the CERN facility has contributed at various levels to the discovery of the new particle. She worked on designing and prototyping the present generation of muon-detectors currently operational. These are crucial for the gold-plated discovery channel for the Higgs-boson. Her main job is to develop radiation hard detectors for CMS for sustained operation at LHC upgrades in this decade and the next

o Prof. Prafulla Kumar Behera worked with CERN before resigning in March 2012 to work on the India-based Neutrino Oberservatory (INO) in Theni, Tamilnadu. In a talk at IIT-Madras this July, he recollected various experiences including how his team once redesigned a detector at ATLAS, due to a technical glitch, within a short span of three months

o Research institutes in Kolkata, Allahabad, Mumbai and Bhubaneswar were involved in the experiment at CERN

o The INO hopes to go beyond the Standard Model, to try and overcome its limitations and truly explain the formation of this Universe.

Pic courtesy: CERN

- Janani Gopalakrishnan Vikram



Print Email Post Comment 
(Total Views: 1648)
 
Share

 
 
Electronics News
   
Here's All About Apple's Secret Work Culture!
EPEAT, The Environmental rating, Is Now Available In India
Altium Announces New TASKING C Compiler For Renesas RH850 Automotive Microcontroller Family
Top Android KitKat Phones Below Rs 10,000 In India!
Strategic Electronics Summit – Industry Expects Rapid Growth With Conducive Policy
 
 
 
     
     
     
     
     
     
Most popular
 

Daily

Weekly

Overall

Features
7 Free Graphics/Image Software For Linux!
Use these tools for all your designing/imaging tasks. Also feel free to comment on your favorites......
8 Free Linux Online Video Tutorials For You To Get Started!
Videos are always an inspiring and better way to get your basics right......
Here Are 15 Useful C Shell Commands & Their Functions
Here's a handy list of shell commands for you. We will bring you more in the coming day......
10 Interactive Commands In Linux You Can Use While Running Top
The top command in Linux is quite a useful command line tool at that......
6 Good CSS Editors For Linux (Ubuntu) Users
The following CSS editors are free and open source. Make sure you use them....
8 Linux Programs For The Artistic Bend Of Mind
Looking for some inspiration?...
7 Highly Powerful CSS Tools For Designers!
The following tools are all open source and really amazing. Try them!...
10 Amazing Tools For PHP Developers!
The following open-source PHP tools are a must-have....
Make Google Chrome Lightening Quick With These Wild Hacks!
Chrome's Flags can be quite useful, use them......
Python How-Tos: Secure Password Hashing
Hashing passwords is more secure than encrypting them!...
10 Free Android Apps For Your Business And More!
Increase your productivity with these free Android apps....
Make Your Life Easier With These 7 Web Services!
The following tools can help achieve your daily tasks quickly and efficiently....
The Tor Diaries: The Top 7 Secret Resources Hiding 'Beneath'
Some of these places have been brought down, however, it's good to be updated with everything, right? Tor is fascinating, and it's dark...really dark ...
Does Arduino Fascinate You? Here Are 7 DIY Projects For You!
Have some fun with Arduino, the following projects will inspire you to take out your toolbox!...
12 Free & Open Source Data Visualisation Tools For You!
Embrace the power of big data with these free visualisation tools. ...
 
  View All
Dialogue
 
10 Questions That Google Never Asks While Hiring!
Here is a list of 10 questions that Google just banned from their interviews....
For Enjay, Open Source Technology Is A Way Of Life
An entirely open source-based company, Enjay IT Solutions, has built itself a reputation in the OSS domain....
Switching To Tizen Doesn’t Mean We Are Abandoning Android: Samsung
The company has worked to build Tizen up from scratch and has now introduced it to developers and the general public with its latest range of wearable...
Venturing Into The Cloud? Develop A Customised Cloud Strategy First!
Diksha P Gupta speaks to Rushikesh Jadhav, cloud evangelist, ESDS Software Solution Pvt Ltd, on how the cloud has changed the way compan...
HTC Is Strong And There Are No Plans Of Sale Now Or In Future, Says HTC's Senior Director-Marketing
Atithya Amaresh from EFYTimes had an exclusive chat with Sirpa H. Ikola, senior director, Marketing, South Asia, HTC about its devices and its plans w...
   
  View All
Videos
 
First Look: LG Optimus G
The phone sports a high-end display and comes powered by a powerful processor. ...
Create QR-Codes For Free
TEC-IT releases the freeware QR-Code Studio to provide a quick and convenient way of QR code creation for every application scenario....
DoT Secretary Shares Plans For Growth Of Telecom Sector
M.F. Farooqui has recently taken charge as secretary, Department of Telecom....
Hands-On: Sony Xperia Z
Xperia Z is Sony's first entrant model in the big-screen smartphone category. ...
Hands On: Videocon A30 Smartphone
Videocon, the consumer electronics company which is known for its refrigerators, washing machine and air-conditioner has unveiled its Android-based sm...
   
View All
   
 
MWC 2014
 
MWC 2014: Tablet Lets People Feel Textures On Its Screen
Now feel what you see on your tablet, by way of ultrasonic waves....
MWC 2014: 4K Android Tablet Games To Kill Consoles, iPad
Tablet makers like Samsung want to beat the iPad by making 4K tabs. ...
MWC 2014: This Vodafone Backpack Helps Get Network In Disaster Situations
Two engineers of Vodafone New Zealand displayed the "mini" mobile network by Vodafone substructure in a backpack. ...
MWC 2014: Wilocity Chipset To Bring 'Lightening' Speed To Mobile Phones
Wilocity has developed a WiGig chipset for mobile phones that will bring lightning-fast wireless capability ...
MWC 2014: Samsung Introduces Octacore, Hexacore Chipsets
The Korean giant, Samsung unveiled two new octacore and hexacore chipsets at MWC 2014, in Barcelona. The company previously used Exynos 5 Octa 5410 ch...
MWC 2014: Alcatel Unveils PIXI 7 Tablet With Android 4.4
Alcatel arrived at the MWC 2014 with yet another low cost Android tablet, priced at $110 ...
MWC 2014: LG F70 Unveiled With Android 4.4
LG announced the new LTE-enabled Android smartphone, LG F70, at MWC 2014 in Barcelona. ...
   
View All
   
 
Events
 
19th Consumer Electronic Imaging Fair To Be Held On ...

View All
   
   
 
 

home archives contact us advertise with us
           
Magazines Portals Directories Events News Verticals Educational Institute  
Electronics for You
Open Source for You
Facts for You
Electronics Bazaar
electronicsforu.com
efytimes.com
opensourceforu.com
electronicsb2b.com
Electronics Annual Guide
EFY EXPO INDIA
EFY EXPO WEST
ELECTRONICS ROCKS
EFY Awards
OSIDAYS Expo
Electronics
Infotech
Linux & Open Source
Consumer Electronics
Science & Technology
BPO
EFY Techcenter 

Educational Kits
Kitsnspares.com
 
 
© Copyright 2014 EFY Enterprises Pvt. Ltd.
All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without written permission is prohibited.
Usage of the content from the web site is subject to Terms and Conditions